Traditional assessment (TA) consists of pen and paper tests: true or false, matching type, multiple choice, essay exams. A growing trend, and a K-12 main component is its opposite--performance-based assessment under the authentic assessment (AA).
AA uses rubrics, rating scales or checklists as a student performs real-life tasks other than conceptual, theory-based learning that TA measures. Think of driving license exams, in order to get one, an applicant takes the written test and completes the requirement with a driving test. It is a great example of how these two types of assessment go together.
Authentic Assessment Tool Box by Jon Mueller